3 Simple Ways To Save Money On Your Construction Project

When you are running a construction project, it can be so easy for costs to spiral completely out of control. Maybe this has happened to you in the past, or perhaps you’re worried that it will this time. This can cause you to cut corners, or at least consider doing so, and this is never a good idea; not only will the finished project be of lower quality, but it could even be unsafe.

So just how can you save money on your construction project and still have a high quality, safe and usable result? Read on for some useful tips.

Be There

If you are project managing a construction project, it might seem as though you can be in your office overseeing things from a distance. This can work some of the time, but it is not something you should be doing one hundred percent of the time.

Whenever there is a big decision to be made or when you are moving from one part of the project to the next, it is crucial that the project manager is on-site. You will need to ensure that everything has gone to plan and sign off on the project at that stage before the next element can be started. You can also make sure that everyone knows what they are doing, as this will prevent communication breakdowns and costly errors being made.

Have Good Partners

It is impossible for a construction project to be completed without the help of external companies. Whether you are using them for materials, for project creation, or even for labor, you will need to know that they are capable of the job you want them to do. Carry out research before agreeing to anything; poor quality materials or site managers who have little experience are not going to help you get the result you want.

Using Armstrong Steel buildings is a good place to start as their reputation means you can be sure of high-quality products. No matter what you need, reputation, customer reviews and being able to speak to the people you will be working with to ensure you can work together, is paramount. The better the third parties you work with, the more money you will save in the long term as the job will be completed sooner and to a professional standard.

Make Use Of Technology

As a project manager, it is your job to be aware of the latest technologies in the construction industry and to utilize them where needed. You don’t have to take on board every single new idea that comes out – this would be an expensive way to work – but instead, you need to check each one out and, if it is going to help your project be on time and in the budget, then it could be necessary to use.

You will need to weigh up the pros and cons of each new technology, as buying the wrong ones will not save you money, but buying the right ones will.


Ways To Maintain A Healthy Bottom Line

mall businesses represent a large percentage of business owners overall. And, unlike large corporations, they don’t have a lot of disposable money so every penny they invest must yield dividends. The good news is there are many ways to sustain annual growth. 

Promoting Your Steel Business 

Marketing is one of the key components to achieving a successful business no matter what industry you’re in. Thankfully, you don’t have to spend a lot of money to do it. Having a presence on social network platforms like Twitter and Facebook can promote your business for very little out of pocket. Thanks to these sites, expensive venues such as the radio and television, which can cost thousands for a few seconds of air time, are no longer as vital as they once were. They do, however, still serve a purpose as a reinforcement for your business. Other ways can include mass e-mails to cover a large percentage of the local population. Again, the cost is minimal. 

A Presence in the Community 

Along with a smart marketing campaign, having a presence in your community will help to bring a face to an otherwise unknown company. Try pitching a sizeable canopy tent by companies such as ins’TenT Industries, with your name and logo on it at the local fair or host an annual picnic or free music festival in the park. Anyone of these things will help the community connect to you. 

Customer Service 

You can bring in as many new customers as you want, however, if they aren’t satisfied with your work, you’ll never achieve growth. Customer service is as important as marketing. And, if you treat your existing base right you’ll earn their trust. Part of customer service is accepting the good with the bad. Returning calls and e-mails promptly and accepting returns or offering a discount on future services when a customer expresses a problem, are just a few ways to maintain a healthy base. 

Existing Customers Are the Backbone of the Steel Industry

Don’t dismiss the advantages of having a loyal customer base. In many cases, they are a useful tool you can use without any additional cost to you. When a customer is happy with your business and the products or services provided, they often tell others about you. This can bring in new sales leads without having to spend additional monies on advertising. 

In fact, many companies now encourage referrals. As a reward for their referral, they receive either a small monetary payment/gift card or a discount on future products or services. It’s a win across the board. 

Customer Convenience 

Vamping up sales is necessary. However, you also have to maintain a focus on ways to make each customer experience convenient. For instance not everyone is able to be at home between 9 and 4 Monday through Friday. In fact, those are the hours that most of the population works. One way to improve sales is to have hours that extend beyond the normal workday and week. Another way is to offer a variety of payment options.

Trained Staff That Knows Their Steel 

The first point of contact for potential customers is your staff. Highly trained employees will work in your favor. Make sure that every crew member who handles customers understands the company policies and your company goals. Holding monthly meetings will help to keep them in the loop and allow them to ask questions on gray areas. 

Employee Incentives 

Much of the success of your business rests squarely on the shoulders of your employees. As such, your growth is something they helped you achieve. It’s important to provide incentives to your staff to keep them happy so that they continue to work hard to bring in new business. Some companies give their employees an annual bonus, while others give them a cash percentage each month for the number of sales. 

Many factors can contribute to the success or the failure of your steel business, such as the economy and access to a fair price for supplies. For instance, the supply and demand for steel can greatly affect your pricing. However, the good news is that with a successful marketing campaign, a presence in the community and a loyal customer base and staff, you’re company will be well on its way to long-term success.  


Durable Living Spaces – 5 Best Materials to Construct a House

A house is not only a place where we spent most of the time with family, make memories and relax. It’s a significant investment and a possible resource for future funds. It is a place that you can call your roof,and that is a necessity in case there is a threat outside. But for it to be sustainable, it has to be madeof the most robust materials and with the best tools.

When looking to build your house, you need to hire the best team to undertake it. Make sure that they have all the latest gadgets at hand to carefully handle the construction. A few of them can be a waterjet cutting machine to precisely cut into strong materials, a secure cement mixer,few utility drills here and there, and a measuring tape and chalk. But the aspect that you need to decide on will be the selection of materials to uphold your house for it to be durable and of value, some of which are the following.


When you need an option that suffices both strength and cost-effectiveness, concrete can be your best choice to construct a house. Concrete is a mixture of sand and stone that is combined with a mix of cement and water to form in molds. This mixture can be applied to steel rods and other materials to construct walls securely. Concrete is a material that, when combined rationally with other elements, makes for a sturdy construction base and is also affordable. A pre-stressed concrete can be a better option for a durable home. You can have your walls and foundation of your house constructed with this material.


Yet the most resilient material to withstand any building is the steel. Notonly is steel the most durable but it is also an environmentally safe construction material to use in any building. It doesn’t endanger the atmosphere as cutting trees does and it is also a material that can be shaped and moved in any way for faster construction. A steel structure for your house can make it safe in case natural disasters strike. It can also be a source to save energy in your home as a steel structure is energy-efficient. Its only con is that it can be a little heavy on your pocket.


Heated bricks can make up for a solid building material foryour house. That which used to be an ancient building method can give your home a stable structure while giving it a vintage look. Brick has been inserted into buildings in the past and as we see them standing to date, this material is meant to be tough for your home. However, they need a strong base to uphold them to make them safe in harsh weather conditions.


This material is widely used inside homes but less on the outside. It can be due to its attribute of soaking in moisture and proneness to damage with insects or fire. But it can be a durable material once it is soaked in chemicals that protect it. You can have wood used to construct your house by having it maintained and away from harming substances. It can make for a cozy-looking home and adds a nice warm feeling. Your crawlspace can be made up of wood to save on costs. This material is also easy to cut and place.


Maintenance of Steel Plants

The methods, strategies, and practices followed to keep an industrial plant or factory running efficiently is called Plant maintenance. This includes regular checks of equipment to ensure proper functioning, to cleaning garbage bins and toilets. Plant maintenance ultimate motto is to create a productive working environment that ensures workers safety too. The ways to maintain plants or facilities are often different types.

Steel mills have different machinery, setting and layout, which demand a total different maintenance ways and procedure compared to other industries.  Therefore, each place of manufacturing generally has its own maintenance plan, tailored to its particularities. One of the ways usually followed by plants is employing their own maintenance staff, includes on-site engineers, and others, whose job is to make sure that machines continue to operate effectively.

Reliability centered maintenance is recognized to be an efficient maintenance strategy often adapted in factories. Because, this approach not only seeks to maintain minimal levels of plant efficiency, but also looks for ways to improve production, increase operating procedures, etc. The increase in operating procedures leads to maximizing a machine’s uptime resulting increase in the amount of time the equipment is actually producing. The accomplishments would be like, adding more workers to a machine or making engineering changes to make maximum utilization of the equipment and plant.

Preventative maintenance is another important aspect to ensure plants efficient operations. One common preventative measure is the periodic checking of machinery to see if it is operating correctly. This prevents machinery from breaking down and helps to foresee a possible problem that would result in loss to the business.

Current scenario of plant maintenance
Outsourcing is there in every industry and at every aspect of the operations. Plant maintenance is recognized as another important and untapped service sector in the recent decades. The result is the pop up of many new private plant maintenance companies and diversification of the existing services by reaching other players in the industry with their internal style of plant maintenance. These firms are generally contracted by a factory to check equipment and make repairs. They can also perform tasks, such as corrosion prevention, acid proofing, or repairing concrete floors.

Siemens VAI for metal industries is providing comprehensive service expertise throughout the entire lifecycle of metal plants. It has a huge variety of service solutions those supports each and every operational phase in steel plants and rolling mills. The solutions include service contracts, spare and wear parts service, consulting and engineering, and taking over the handling of maintenance activities and migration/upgrade measures.

The Siemens Metals Service & Support Center gives a central expert help desk to handle all questions and problems regarding plant operation. All these services and efforts reduce downtime and cost of plants, increase availability and productivity, ensure personnel safety and enable environmentally friendly solutions. In detail, Siemens support in electrical and metallurgical areas of plant are again categorized into few aspects like.

  • » Maintenance services
  • » Operational support
  • » Plant upgrades
  • » Plant migration and optimization

A to Z assistance
A plant maintenance plan can include scheduling times for equipment checkups, trouble-shooting, and general clean-up. Since it is a default requirement for plants from equipment to assembly lines, a stoppage of the line can be financially damaging.

Predominant Engineers & Contractors Pvt Ltd (PECL) is established to serve Sponge Iron, Steel & Power Plants. The company provides a wide range of assistance like project finance services, project implementation services, operation & maintenance services, turnkey services, plant modernization / expansion projects and other consulting services. While the PECL Plant Operation & Maintenance Services includes:

  • » Management of Operation & Maintenance of entire Integrated Steel Complex and Power Plants.
  • » Development and establishment of experienced skilled and unskilled personnel.
  • » To provide advisory services for spare part management system
  • » To provide plant Improvement advisory services.
  • » Running / routine / preventive / minor breakdown maintenance.
  • » Long term major maintenance work.
  • » Annual maintenance & overhauling & management of AMC with OEM.
  • » Accidental repairing of any equipment.
  • » Supervision of house keeping.

Tata Steel‘s approach to maintenance of its plant is innovative as it is closely guided by the market, delivery and other requirements. This approach entails the highest level of output like, plant availability, equipment reliability, and the rate of process and quality with the lowest input vise, cost of labour, material and maintenance time over the entire life cycle of the machines. Hence, Tata Steel has developed sophisticated predictive maintenance technology for continuous production running. This facility is unique to the company, because the procedure goes beyond the usual practice of monitoring the equipment condition using only one parameter.

Mr. C Mishra, Chief, Mechanical Technology Group shared on the Tata Steel website, that the maintenance procedures monitors temperature, thermal profile, vibration, condition of lubricants or particle size count and then synthesize all the information for an accurate diagnosis. The department feeds the data online to get not only a list of possible problems but also the probability of their occurrence. Hence, the whole procedure of maintenance planning very cost effective.

Software role in making plant maintenance intelligent
Today, software is there everywhere. So, the artificial intelligence is making plant maintenance more intelligent and efficient. Few players providing software products to the plant maintenance industry are
ProSmart monitoring system from ITT is installed at Worthington Steel. The ProSmart system continuously collects, sorts and analyzes data at the machine level without human intervention. This predictive condition monitoring system enables user to identify and solve problems before they impact production.

Innovative Maintenance System’s Fleet Maintenance Pro manages plants fleet inventory, preventive maintenance, repairs, fuel, work orders, parts, and much more. This is a flexible, affordable Windows program that puts client in full control of your fleet of machinery and equipment, while making it a cost effective way of managing your fleet maintenance.
Incotec IT Solutions is way ahead of other vendors in the industry, with their after sale monitoring software. This follows the plant equipment and as well the clients schedule, having connected to its customer care. This kind of follow-up ensures and

  • Help the customer by supplying services that he needs
  • Guarantee the quality of offers by a precise management of skills
  • Respect the contractual commitments with clients
  • Reduce intervention time and associated costs
  • Make necessary parts available at the location of intervention
  • Accompany the customer: follow his file, schedule the preventive maintenance…
  • Watch out for security and confidentiality of the information

Plant Maintenance involves managing and controlling the planned schedule and also the unplanned issues. A lot of rigidness is required in the maintenance software and other products in the maintenance process. Still, human intervention is decreased in number, but not totally ruled out.

Janitors are an important part of plant maintenance. These maintenance technicians do not work directly with machines, but instead make sure that the plant facilities are clean and safe. This can include anything from removing garbage to cleaning bathrooms and eating areas. Many times, janitors will be responsible for the maintenance of the factory floor — and keeping it clean of any spills that could be dangerous to equipment operators.


Stainless Steel Aid in Enhancement of our Day-to-Day Life

There are various types of steel available in the market. They are Carbon Steels, Alloy Steels, Stainless Steels and Tool Steels.

Each steel has got own properties and its environmental and social benefits cannot be ignored. These benefits need to be taken into consideration because the terms such as environmentally friendly, sustainability have become the need of the hour.

Like Stainless steel products help us to head a healthier life and are hygienic for the environment as well.

In this article, we shall discuss about the stainless steel aid in enhancement of our day-to-day life?

  1. Reduction of Waste:

Reduction of waste is one of the ways of stainless steel aid in enhancement of our day-to-day life. It avoids the amount of waste gases, materials emitted and even disposal of waste products. It helps in recycling of cardboard, paper and composting process liberate a lot of corrosive gases, so stainless steel is preeminently used for this process as well.

  1. Air Purification:

Breathing in fresh air has become a kind of myth today. And it’s all because of the pollutants in air which have been directly or indirectly been emitted by us- the human beings.

Stainless steel aid in enhancement of our day-to-day life is by purifying the air and improving its quality. The emergence of new stainless steel converters in the market make easier to lessen pollution on buses, forklifts, generator sets, motor vehicles, mining equipment, trucks, trains, etc.

  1. Hygienic Water:

Because of water pollution happening around the globe, there is a problem of hygienic water as well. For clean and hygienic water, stainless steel pipes can be utilized.

The quality standard is also high because of this, there is assurance of lasting hygiene and averts the formation of any form on which bacteria can develop.

  1. Filtration:

Diesel filters are designed in order to eliminate smoke and soot particles from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine. Contemporary versions consist of 90% stainless steel. So, they can 95% of black smoke and 85% of soot particles.

These stainless steels have an excellent temperature resistance, manufacturability and economic properties make it the preeminent option for the filter.

  1. Reduce the use of fossil fuels:

The world is running out of non-renewable forms of energy. So, stainless steel aid in enhancement of our day-to-day life by saving those forms of energy like the fossil fuels.

The steel type can be made use for manufacturing of condensing boilers. These boilers are in the present day most energy efficient heating method with an efficiency rating of 100%.

It (Stainless Steel) is necessary because of the condensation that happens through the process; therefore corrosion resistance is of high significance.


Waste Disposal and Recycling in Steel Industry

Steel is a versatile commodity that plays a major part in everyday life—from food cans, household containers, automobiles, and office buildings. Steel makes up the largest category of metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial waste streams. Steel since ages has been a recycled material throughout the world.

Solid wastes in steel plants are essential by-products generated during various processing steps involved in the production of iron and steel. Solid wastes generated by integrated iron and steel works cause environmental pollution and therefore must be discarded. Until the last decade, the slag, dust and sludge generated by integrated steel plants was called waste”, but now this term has been replaced with “by-product” due to intensive re-utilization of these wastes.

In 2010, the United States generated about 2.7 million tons of steel as containers and packaging in the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) stream, as well as another 14.2 million tons of ferrous metals, which include iron and steel, as durable goods—representing 6.8 percent of total MSW generation in 2010.

The waste generated by steel industry not only causes health problems but also causes lot of environmental degradation. Therefore it becomes very important for the industries who are involved in the manufacture of steel to look for the methods that ensures safe disposal and recycling of waste.

Methods used by various Steel Industries for the waste disposal:

Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL) through extensive R & D activities have identified various solid wastes that could be used as productive inputs. The company pursues the policy of three R’s — Recycle, Reduce and Reuse – to manage its waste. Many innovative projects under “Wealth from Waste” have been implemented for solid waste utilization. The main objective of the company is to transform solid waste into wealth in order to benefit from it.

The Parsada dump yard of JSPL stores solid waste on a temporary basis and then for further re-use, the solid waste is transported to the sinter plant.

Recently BMP (bio-methanation plant) was installed in association with BARC, Mumbai for bio-gas production. Bio-degradable from residential area is collected, segregated and fed in this 3 TPD BMP. It is the only plant of its kind in whole of Chhattisgarh.  As per the Fly Ash Notification Law, which came into effect from 1999, JSPL has attained Fly Ash Utilisation Status. Steps have already been taken to achieve a level of 100% utilization of the same. The ash is partly used for brick making, ash dyke rising, road and embankment construction, cement manufacturing and land filling.

Another major steel industry, Tata steel, has made reducing emissions a priority for the Company. Operational investments, such as the new H Blast Furnace in Jamshedpur, seek to employ state-of-the-art equipment, which improves efficiency and reduces pollution.

Some steps taken by Tata Steel, India are:

  • 89.6% of solid waste generated from Steel Works is recycled or reused.
  • 17% of the solid waste generated, amounting to approximately 6, 12,300 tonnes in 2008-09 was used to fill low-lying areas and for peripheral road construction around Jamshedpur.

Tangshan Iron & Steel, the flagship site of China’s largest steelmaker, Hebei Iron & Steel (HBIS) Group, the second largest producer of steel in the world. In recent years Tangshan Iron & Steel has made environmental improvements in power consumption, water use and by-product recycling.

Tangshan Iron carried out a large scale investment in plant energy savings and emission reduction technology. Two new 450 cubic meter blast furnaces were dismantled, reducing dust emissions by 1600 tons one year, and sulfur dioxide reduced by 3000 tons.

In 2011 the company implemented 25 energy saving projects and invested 2.68 billion RMB ($400m) in environmental governance and energy conservation.

In 2012, Tangshan Steel signed a joint venture agreement with Harsco for the environmentally-beneficial handling and processing of steelmaking by-products. The new agreement will include advanced slag treatment processes for BOF and LAF slag’s, leading to significant reductions in environmental impact versus traditional methods, along with high-efficiency metal recovery and the manufacture of co products from the residual slag’s, for reuse into the cement, concrete and road base infrastructure markets.

Apart from these waste disposal methods used by the companies, recycling is also becoming very important. Recycling is a process using materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for “conventional” waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the “Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle” waste hierarchy.

One such company Schnitzer Steel Industries Inc, founded in 1906 as a one-man scrap metal operation, is now one of the largest recyclers of scrap metal, a leading provider of used and recycled auto parts and a manufacturer of finished steel products.

The company has also started joint venture with American Rail Marketing LL, Cherry City Metals, Plant Reclamation and United Metals.

The steel industry in North America has been recycling steel scrap for more than 150 years. The steel industry needs scrap to produce new steel, which ensures that all steel products contain anywhere from 25 percent up to 100 percent recycled content. It also is cheaper to recycle steel than it is to mine virgin ore to manufacture new steel. New ore is still mined in order to supplement production of steel and steel products.

Recovering steel not only saves money, but also dramatically reduces energy consumption, compared to making steel from virgin materials. In turn, this reduces the amount of greenhouse gases released in to the air during processing and manufacturing steel from virgin ore.

These are the few developments which have taken place in the waste disposal and recycling area, however with the growth in the manufacturing and production more developments and innovations will be senn in the near future.


Why Steel Is Still Used In Construction

Obvious as it is, steel is the most reliable material that can be used to form the skeleton of any building or structure and also keep its foundation strong. It is also the most regarded alloy in civil engineering due to its versatile mechanical and thermal properties.

Steel can be made malleable and ductile by manipulating the percentage of carbon in its make. High malleability allows steel to be beaten into sheets for use in construction of sports fields, houses, skyscrapers and others.

High ductility allows it to be drawn into wires or thin cylinders for use as Rebar (reinforced steel bar) in holding structures together.

In spite of the advent of strong and more durable composites, there is no one single material that has been successfully experimented as a replacement for steel in construction either due to failure after prolonged duration or due to costs of production.

Steel is also regarded as the backbone of world economy. If steel falls, the economy falls with it.

This article will delve into the properties of steel that make it strong and reliable despite not being a new innovation.

Mechanical Properties

Malleability and Ductility

Steel can be made malleable and ductile by manipulating the percentage of carbon in its make. High malleability allows steel to be beaten into sheets for use in construction of sports fields, houses, skyscrapers and others.

High ductility allows it to be drawn into wires or thin cylinders for use as Rebar (reinforced steel bar) in holding structures together.

Strength and Toughness

Yield strength is the most important property any civil engineer considers. Construction rebars are designed to have extremely high yield strengths that help withstand high loads and stresses with no crack propagation.

Construction grade steel is known for its toughness, which is the ability to resist brittle fracture. Steel with high toughness can withstand extremely high impact energy before breaking.

Thermal Properties

Construction-grade steel is known for its exceptional thermal graphs. Due its high mass density and specific heat capacity, it takes huge thermal loads before softening and eventually melting.


Compared to many modern materials that are trying to replace it, steel in bulk quantity is cheaper. The low price per unit of steel is because of the ease of producing it. Also a low price per unit results in a drop in the overall price of the structure to be constructed.


Steel is used not only in making rebars but also roofs and walls. Due to its high corrosion resistance, the cost of maintaining it is pretty low. Rebars don’t generally break except during calamities, hence doesn’t require maintenance or replacement unlike engineered wood that is being used a few countries as a replacement for steel.


As per experts, steel will continue to reign in the construction industry and almost all other industries and might never get replaced, unless there is a better man-made material more durable and cheaper than it.

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Steel Recycling For a Sustainable Future

Steel scrap is still steel! Steel is probably the only material that is almost 100% recyclable. The world collectively produces around 1.6 billion metric tons of steel and consumes 1.5 billion metric tons.

As per the World Steel Association, in 2012, the world recycled around 88% of the steel it consumed.

Steel recycling is a process by which scrap steel is processed into new products.

This is done to prevent wastage of potentially useful materials; air and water pollution by reducing the need for conventional waste disposal; lower greenhouse gas emissions; and reduce the consumption of virgin steel and energy.

Although iron and carbon are in abundance, there isn’t enough percentage to satisfy fresh productions. We need to protect and preserve these limited resources.

What the Consumer Gets by Recycling Steel

Recycling is also done for economic reasons. It is always cheaper to recycle steel than to mine virgin ore and process it.

Then why not stop mining virgin ore? To answer this, it is pertinent to note that many steel applications require to last long. As examples, cars, electrical appliances and bridges need to last for a long time. Recycled steel might not be as durable. Thus we continue to mine virgin ore to supplement the production of new steel. And at times, scrap steel is mixed with virgin steel to make the former more durable.

Economic expansion – domestic and international – creates additional demand that cannot be fully met by available scrap supplies.

A steel mill that uses scrap steel in stead of virgin iron ore to make a new product is necessarily not compromising on performance and grade.

In fact, its manufacturing process poses fewer risks to the environment. This gives the consumer an outstanding value.

Benefits of Steel Recycling

As per the US EPA, the benefits of steel recycling in the US is calculated in the following way

Energy savings: 75%; virgin iron ore savings: 90%; reduction in water use: 40%; reduction in air pollution: 86%; reduction in water pollution: 76%; reduction in mining wastes: 97%; and reduction in consumer wastes: 105%.

Also, every ton of new steel made from scrap steel saves 1,115 kg of iron ore, 625 kg of coal, and 53 kg of limestone.

Environmental Advantages

Some unique advantages of recycling includes

1. The conservation of the ever-diminishing landfill space and recovery of the surface biodiversity destroyed in mining of new raw materials from the ground.

Of course, individual observations might be contrary to this.

2. It ensures that valuable resources aren’t lost. The metals made from these secondary resources then make much less impact in the re-manufacturing process.

3. 100% recyclability is the mark of a sustainable industry.

4. Using secondary raw materials means consuming less natural resources, which would otherwise be needed to make newer metal compounds such as iron ore in steelmaking.

5. EU figures indicate that using recycled raw materials, including metals, cuts CO2 emissions by 200 million tonnes every year.